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Industrial Relations FAQ


Question 1: What are Industrial Disputes?
Answer 1 : Industrial Dispute means any dispute or differences between employers and employers or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour of any person.

Question 2: What are the different categories of Industrial Disputes?
Answer 2 : The Second Schedule of the I.D. Act deals with matters within the jurisdiction of Labour Courts which fall under the category of Rights Disputes.  Such disputes are as follows:

  1. The propriety or legality of an order passed by an employer under the standing orders;
  2. The application and interpretation of standing orders which regulate conditions of employment.
  3. Discharge or dismissal of workmen including reinstatement of, or grant of relief to, workmen wrongfully dismissed;
  4. Withdrawal of any customary concession or privilege;
  5. Illegality or otherwise of a strike or lock-out; and
  6. All matters other than those specified in the Third Schedule.

The Third Schedule of the I.D. Act deals with matters within the jurisdiction of Industrial Tribunals which could be classified as Interest Disputes.  These are as follows:-

  1. Wages, including the period and mode of payment;
  2. Compensatory and other allowances;
  3. Hours of work and rest intervals;
  4. Leave with wages and holidays;
  5. Bonus, profit sharing, provident fund and gratuity;
  6. Shift working otherwise than in accordance with standing orders;
  7. Classification by grades;
  8. Rules of discipline;
  9. Rationalization;
  10. Retrenchment of workmen and closure of establishment; and
  11. Any other matter that may be prescribed.

Question 3: Who can raise an Industrial Dispute?
Answer 3: Any person who is a workman employed in an industry can raise an industrial dispute.  A workman includes any person (including an apprentice) employed in an industry to do manual, unskilled, skilled, technical, operational, clerical or supervisory work for hire or reward.  It excludes those employed in the Army, Navy, Air Force and in the police service, in managerial or administrative capacity.  Industry means any business, trade, undertaking, manufacture or calling of employers and includes any calling, service, employment, handicraft, or industrial occupation or avocation of workmen.

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